Sunday, August 7, 2011

Oral Fatty Acids Restore Stratum Corneum Lipids in Atopic Dogs

Popa I, Pin D, Remoue N et al. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study. Veterinary Research Communications 2011: 35: 501-509. Abstract
PubMed ID (PMID): 21786009
ReprintM. Haftek
Comments: This pilot study provides evidence that supplementing the diet of atopic dogs with an omega-6/omega-3 commercial formulation for two months increased stratum corneum lipids and the coverage of deep intercellular spaces with lipid lamellae. These study is important for the demonstration that orally-administered fatty acids can have a biochemical and morphological effect on the skin barrier. Nevertheless, whether or not such an effect would be associated with any relevant clinical benefit has not yet been proven with certainty.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Monday, August 1, 2011

Glucose Homeostasis After Prednisolone Anti-Allergic Therapy

Kovalik M, Thoday KL, Evans H et al. Prednisolone is associated with an increase in serum insulin but not serum fructosamine concentrations in dogs with atopic dermatitis. Veterinary Journal 2011: EPub ahead of print. Abstract
PubMed ID (PMID): 21745752
ReprintR. Mellanby
Comments: This clinical study revealed that prednisolone given at around 1 mg/kg once daily for 7 days then every other day for 5 weeks to 16 dogs had no effect on plasma glucose and serum fructosamine concentrations. In contrast, serum insulin levels were higher after treatment, but only one of 16 values was above the reference range. 
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Papillomavirus are Normal Dog Skin Commensals

Lange C, Zollinger S, Tobler K et al. Clinically healthy skin of dogs is a potential reservoir for canine papillomaviruses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011; 49: 707-709. Abstract
PubMed ID (PMID): 21159938
ReprintC. Lange
Comments: This study established that canine papillomavirus DNA was amplified by PCR from oral cavity and interdigital skin cytobrushes of a little over 50% of dogs presented to the University of Zurich Small Animal Clinic without any skin lesions suggesting papillomatosis. In dogs, like in other species, papillomavirus are part of the commensal microbial flora. The paper is very technical, clinical information is minimal, yet, its conclusions are noteworthy.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Drug Efflux Pump Polymorphisms Explain Enrofloxacin Toxicity in Cats

Ramirez CJ, Minch JD, Gay JM et al. Molecular genetic basis for fluoroquinolone-induced retinal degeneration in cats. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 2011; 21: 66-75. Abstract
PubMed ID (PMID): 21150813
ReprintK. Mealey
Comments: this paper reports that cats have species-specific aminoacid changes in conserved regions of the ABCG2 gene that encodes a drug efflux pump present, among other locations, on the luminal surface of retinal endothelial cells. Interestingly, these aminoacid changes appear to affect the cell membrane expression of the pump, the efficiency of its drug substrate transport function and its protective effect from enrofloxacin-induced phototoxicity. This set of studies provides a pharmacogenetic explanation to enrofloxacin-associated retinal degeneration. The paper is quite heavy in laboratory methods, but it is very well written, clear to follow, and interesting on a mechanistic point of view.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA