Monday, April 30, 2012

Avermectins and Milbemycins Toxicity

Merola VM, Eubig PA. Toxicology of avermectins and milbemycins (macrocytic lactones). Veterinary Clinics of North America (Small Animal Practice) 2012; 42: 313-333. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 22381182
ReprintV. Merola
Comments: This paper is an excellent review about the usage of avermectins and milbemycins in dogs and cats. This review explains the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of macrocyclic lactones and provides in depth relevant information about P-glycoprotein. Toxic dosages for each medication are also reported. There is a review of all possible drug interactions with macrocyclic lactones, drugs that could be either P-glycoprotein substrates or inhibitors. This paper finishes with the review of current data on intravenous lipid emulsions as a possible therapy for macrocyclic lactone toxicosis. 
Recommended by: Frane Banovic, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Equine Herpesvirus Dermatitis Due to EHV-5

Herder V, Barsnick R, Walliser U et al. Equid herpesvirus 5-associated dermatitis in a horse-resembling herpes-associated erythema multiforme. Veterinary Microbiology 2012; 155: 420-424. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 21996546
Comments: This is a single case report of a horse with lethargy and chronic facial-predominant pustular, hyperkeratotic and alopecic skin lesions. Histopathology of skin lesions revealed ballooning degeneration of superficial keratinocytes along with amphophilic intranuclear inclusions. In situ hybridization, PCR and electron microscopy confirmed the infection of keratinocytes with EHV-5. This paper provides the first description of an herpes dermatitis in horses. Because of the existence of a mild interface dermatitis and superficial keratinocyte apoptosis, the authors proposed that this disease represent an equine analogue to herpes-associated erythema multiforme of humans. We differ with this assessment, as the presence of intranuclear inclusions and virions makes instead this dermatitis a classical herpes infection that is active at the site of skin lesions. This equine dermatitis is different from human herpes-associated erythema multiforme, which is caused by an aberrant immune response against keratinocytes harboring herpes DNA fragments without viral inclusions or particles.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Humans

Mockenhaupt M. The current understanding of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Expert Review In Clinical Immunology 2011; 7: 803-815. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 22014021
ReprintOpen access
Comments: This free article highlights the difference in clinical signs between these entities in human patients, then it reviews their epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment options. For cross referencing, one can also check another recently-published open access review on the same subject (Click here for paper PMID: 21162721).
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Monday, April 2, 2012

A PCR Assay to Detect Demodex canis

Ravera I, Altet L, Francino O et al. Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples. Parasitology Research 2011; 108: 305-308. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 20865428
ReprintL. Ferrer 
Comments: This paper reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA. This assay was successfully tested on canine hair and skin biopsies and showed a high sensitivity. The two main findings of the study are: 1) Demodex DNA was found in nearly 18% of tested healthy dogs samples, which is a much higher number than previously reported in microscopic studies, and 2) Demodex DNA was detected also in non-lesional skin from dogs with demodicosis. In summary, this test could be a useful tool for further investigations on the biology of this mite and on the pathogenesis of canine demodicosis.
Recommended by: Svetlana Belova, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia