Thursday, February 22, 2018

More Than you Ever Wanted to Know about the Cat Flea

Rust MK; The biology and ecology of cat fleas and advancements in their pest management: A Review. Insects 20Oct 27;8: 118(Link to PubMed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 29366565
Reprints: Open Access
Comments: This is, perhaps, one of the most extensive reviews on this topic. Of particular interest for the residents will be the sections on the flea biology, the diseases of medical and veterinary importance transmitted by this flea, the on-animal treatment studies and the issue of insecticide resistance.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

IL-31, a Relevant Cytokine for Human (and Canine) Atopic Dermatitis

Bağci IS, Ruzicka T. IL-31: A new key player in dermatology and beyond. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2018, ePub ahead of print(Link to PubMed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 29366565
Reprints:Isin Bagci
Comments: With the usage of drugs that target the IL-31 directly (for example the lokivetmab) or signal transduction by its receptor (e.g. oclacitinib), we would expect residents to be familiar with this pruritogenic cytokine and its receptor. This paper reviews the structure of IL-31 and its receptor, their function and the role of this cytokine in dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases of humans
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Comprehensive Review on the Use of Cyclosporine in Dogs

Archer TM, Boothe DM, Langston VC, Fellman CL, Lunsford KV, Mackin AJ. Oral cyclosporine treatment in dogs: a review of the literature. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2014, 28; 1-20(Link to PubMed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 24341787
Reprints: Open Access
Comments: This paper, published a few years ago, provides a very thorough review of the pharmacology and therapeutic aspects of cyclosporine therapy in dogs with immunologic diseases. A must read for residents.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Friday, June 30, 2017

A Comprehensive Review on Human Pemphigus

Kasperkiewicz M, Ellebrecht CT, Takahashi H, Yamagami J, Zillikens D, Payne AS and Amagai M. Pemphigus. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 2017, 3; 17026(Link to PubMed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 28492232
Reprints: Masayuki Amagai
Comments: These comments will be very short: this is clearly one of the best reviews ever written on this topic: this paper provides detailed information on the pathogenesis, clinical signs, histopathology, immunopathology and treatment of human pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus; a must read for board examination preparation.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Bovine Papillomavirus 14 as a Cause of Feline Sarcoids

Munday JS, Thomson N, Dunowska M, Knight CG, Laurie RE and Hills S. Genomic characterization of the feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus and proposed classification as Bos taurus papillomavirus type 14. Veterinary Microbiology 2015, 177; 289-295(Link to PubMed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 2580470
Reprints: John Munday
Comments: Proliferative lesions resembling those of equine sarcoids have been recognized in felids for nearly two decades, and their link to a novel papillomavirus identified as "feline sarcoid-associated papillomavirus - FeSarPV" has been proposed. This paper reveals the genomic sequence of this novel papillomavirus and confirms its homology with other members of the Deltapapillomavirus genus, the bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-1, -2 and -13. The authors propose the name of BPV-14. These results suggest that, in cats as in horses, sarcoids are mesenchymal proliferations caused by cross-species infections with BPVs.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Thursday, June 30, 2016

Immunopathogenesis of Staphylococcal Skin Infections

Hill PB and Imai A. The immunopathogenesis of staphylococcal skin infections – A review. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2016; 49: 8-28(Link to Article). 
PubMed ID (PMID): NA
Reprints: Peter Hill
Comments: This is a review paper that highlights Saphylococcus virulence factors, especially those used to "invade" the skin, and the "defenses" used by the skin and the immune system to resist infections by this microbe. This article provides relevance information in an entertaining fashion
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

The Skin Microbiome of Healthy and Atopic Dogs

Bradley CW, Morris DO, Rankin SC, Cain CL, Misic AM, Houser T, Mauldin EA and Grice EA . Longitudinal evaluation of the skin microbiome and association with microenvironment and treatment in canine atopic dermatitis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2016; 136: 1182-1190(Link to Pubmed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 26854488
Reprints: Elizabeth Grice
Comments: This study compared the skin surface microbiome at four body sites (axilla, pinna, groin, mouth) in 16 healthy dogs and 14 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD) and associated superficial pyoderma. All atopic dogs were treated with antibiotics, but, in half of these cases, also (as shown by the last supplementary table) with anti-inflammatory drugs; the microbiome was then re-evaluated post-antibiotics and several weeks thereafter. As shown in a previous study (see a previous blog entry, PMID 24421875) the skin of healthy dogs had a more diverse bacterial microbiome than that of dogs with AD. This lower bacterial diversity of atopic dogs was associated with increased proportions of Staphylococcus species (mostly S. pseudintermedius, as expected) and Corynebacterium species. Antibiotic (± anti-allergic) therapy led to a reduction of Staphylococcus populations and re-increase in diversity. Interestingly, the skin lesion scores were correlated with the relative abundance of Staphylococcus species. Finally, and as expected, transepidermal water loss was positively correlated with skin lesion scores, while pH was negatively correlated with lesion grades.
This paper supports previous findings and provides additional information on the similarity between microbiome changes during AD in humans and dogs
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Monday, October 12, 2015

Updates on Human Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

Weidinger S, Novak N. Atopic dermatitis. Lancet 2015, Sep 11 (ePub ahead of print)(Link to Pubmed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 26377142  
Reprints: Stephan Weidinger
Boehncke WH, Schön MP. Psoriasis. Lancet 2015; 386: 983-994. (Link to Pubmed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 26025581
Comments: These two papers provide excellent up-to-date reviews on the clinical signs, treatment options and immunopathology of these two complex immunologic skin diseases of humans. The depth of information is excellent for residents and veterinary dermatologists wishing to remain updated on these common conditions of humans.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Thursday, April 23, 2015

Mutations in the Gene Encoding Keratin 16 Cause Footpad Hyperkeratosis in Dogues de Bordeaux

Plassais J, Guaguère E, Lagoutte L, et al. A spontaneous KRT16 mutation in a dog breed: a model for human focal nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (FNEPPK). J Invest Dermatol 2015; 135: 1187-1190(Link to Pubmed). 
PubMed ID (PMID): 25521457
Reprints: Catherine André
Comments: The Dogue de Bordeaux breed has been long known for being predisposed to the development of a hereditary footpad hyperkeratosis. This paper reveals a lack of expression of keratin 16 in suprabasal footpad keratinocytes in affected dogs. Furthermore,  the authors detected a 1 base pair insertion in the KRT16 gene, which resulted in a truncation of keratin 16 due to the loss of the last 85 aminoacids. All affected dogs were found to be homozygotes for the mutated allele; carrier dogs that were heterozygous for the mutation did not exhibit any clinical signs, as is usually the case for the rare autosomal recessive keratinopathies.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Monday, April 20, 2015

The Histopathology of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Dogs is not What you Think!

Banovic F, Olivry T, Dazzle L, Tobias JR, Atlee B, Zabel S, Hensel N, Linder KEClinical and microscopic characteristics of canine toxic epidermal necrolysis. Vet Pathol 2015; 52: 321-330Abstract. 
PubMed ID (PMID): 24907312
Reprints: Keith Linder
Comments: Traditionally, lesions associated with epidermal necrosis without dermal inflammation have been given the diagnosis of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) while those exhibiting lymphocyte-mediated keratinocyte apoptosis at multiple epidermal levels are deemed representative of erythema multiforme (EM). This study shows that, using biopsy material of three dogs with TEN, "EM-like" keratinocyte apoptosis also occurs in canine TEN, as it does for the human disease. As a result, histopathology cannot (and should not) be used for accurately differentiating canine EM and TEN! As for many other diseases, the diagnosis should be made instead from collating information from the history, clinical signs and histopathology.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA