Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Lepidopterism Due to Contact with Setae of the Pine Processionary Carterpillar in Dogs

Niza ME, Ferreira RL, Coimbra IV et al. Effects of pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa contact in dogs: 41 cases (2002-2006). Zoonoses Public Health 2012; 59: 35-38Abstract. 
PubMed ID (PMID): 21824369
ReprintME Niza 
Comments: In Meditarrean countries, dogs living near pine trees are often in contact with irritant hair (setae) from the pine processionary caterpillars. These setae are rich in thaumetopoein, an urticating protein, and irritant reactions consist most often of drooling, dysphagia and  pain with tongue ulceration and necrosis. This paper provides relevant clinical information based upon a large series of cases of canine lepidopterism, a disease rarely reported before in the veterinary literature.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Friday, August 24, 2012

Desmocollin-1 is a Major Antigen for Canine Pemphigus Foliaceus

Bizikova P, Dean GA, Hashimoto T, Olivry T. Cloning and establishment of canine desmocollin-1 as a major autoantigen in canine pemphigus foliaceus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012; 149: 197-207Abstract. 
PubMed ID (PMID): 22884397
ReprintT. Olivry 
Comments: A set of studies demonstrate that most dogs affected with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have circulating anti-desmocollin-1 (DSC-1) IgG autoantibodies. This establishes this desmosomal cadherin as a major target autoantigen in canine PF. This is an important step forward in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this most common autoimmune disease in dogs.
Recommended by: Svetlana Belova, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia

Monday, May 28, 2012

About the Human Skin Microbiome...

Grice EA, Segre JA. The skin microbiome. Nature Reviews in Microbiology 2011; 9: 244-253. Abstract.

PubMed ID (PMID): 21407241
ReprintJ. Segre
Comments: This is a well-written review about the relatively new field of human skin microbiome, in which information is derived not from classical bacterial cultures, but from the amplification and sequencing of bacterial DNA from skin surface samples. This paper first reviews some of the factors that influence skin bacterial populations (e.g. body sites, temporal or interpersonal variability...) before addressing the relation between surface microbial flora and some skin diseases.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Monday, April 30, 2012

Avermectins and Milbemycins Toxicity

Merola VM, Eubig PA. Toxicology of avermectins and milbemycins (macrocytic lactones). Veterinary Clinics of North America (Small Animal Practice) 2012; 42: 313-333. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 22381182
ReprintV. Merola
Comments: This paper is an excellent review about the usage of avermectins and milbemycins in dogs and cats. This review explains the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of macrocyclic lactones and provides in depth relevant information about P-glycoprotein. Toxic dosages for each medication are also reported. There is a review of all possible drug interactions with macrocyclic lactones, drugs that could be either P-glycoprotein substrates or inhibitors. This paper finishes with the review of current data on intravenous lipid emulsions as a possible therapy for macrocyclic lactone toxicosis. 
Recommended by: Frane Banovic, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Equine Herpesvirus Dermatitis Due to EHV-5

Herder V, Barsnick R, Walliser U et al. Equid herpesvirus 5-associated dermatitis in a horse-resembling herpes-associated erythema multiforme. Veterinary Microbiology 2012; 155: 420-424. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 21996546
Comments: This is a single case report of a horse with lethargy and chronic facial-predominant pustular, hyperkeratotic and alopecic skin lesions. Histopathology of skin lesions revealed ballooning degeneration of superficial keratinocytes along with amphophilic intranuclear inclusions. In situ hybridization, PCR and electron microscopy confirmed the infection of keratinocytes with EHV-5. This paper provides the first description of an herpes dermatitis in horses. Because of the existence of a mild interface dermatitis and superficial keratinocyte apoptosis, the authors proposed that this disease represent an equine analogue to herpes-associated erythema multiforme of humans. We differ with this assessment, as the presence of intranuclear inclusions and virions makes instead this dermatitis a classical herpes infection that is active at the site of skin lesions. This equine dermatitis is different from human herpes-associated erythema multiforme, which is caused by an aberrant immune response against keratinocytes harboring herpes DNA fragments without viral inclusions or particles.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Humans

Mockenhaupt M. The current understanding of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Expert Review In Clinical Immunology 2011; 7: 803-815. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 22014021
ReprintOpen access
Comments: This free article highlights the difference in clinical signs between these entities in human patients, then it reviews their epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment options. For cross referencing, one can also check another recently-published open access review on the same subject (Click here for paper PMID: 21162721).
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Monday, April 2, 2012

A PCR Assay to Detect Demodex canis

Ravera I, Altet L, Francino O et al. Development of a real-time PCR to detect Demodex canis DNA in different tissue samples. Parasitology Research 2011; 108: 305-308. Abstract.
PubMed ID (PMID): 20865428
ReprintL. Ferrer 
Comments: This paper reports the development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Demodex canis DNA. This assay was successfully tested on canine hair and skin biopsies and showed a high sensitivity. The two main findings of the study are: 1) Demodex DNA was found in nearly 18% of tested healthy dogs samples, which is a much higher number than previously reported in microscopic studies, and 2) Demodex DNA was detected also in non-lesional skin from dogs with demodicosis. In summary, this test could be a useful tool for further investigations on the biology of this mite and on the pathogenesis of canine demodicosis.
Recommended by: Svetlana Belova, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia

Saturday, March 10, 2012

Congenital Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca and Ichthyosiform Dermatosis in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Dogs

Hartley C, Donaldson D, Smith KC et al. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca and ichthyosiform dermatosis in 25 cavalier King Charles spaniel dogs - part I: clinical signs, histopathology and inheritance. Veterinary Opthalmology 2011; Epub ahead of print. Abstract. 
PubMed ID (PMID): 22212237
ReprintC. Hartley 
Comments: This syndromic ichthyosis, which does not yet appear to have a human equivalent, was first reported in CKCS in 1994 by Z. Alhaidari (abstract). Clinical signs were further described in 2006, with the publication of a series of 19 cases (abstract). The paper referenced above expands the clinical characterization of the keratoconjunctivitis sicca, the associated keratitis, the possible xerostomia, an abnormal coat and ichthyotic signs (scaling, footpad hyperkeratosis, nail defects) in this breed. Furthermore, it provides some information on microscopic lesions and on the characterization of an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. In papers recently published, the authors rule-out several candidate genes, which predispose humans to develop Sjögren syndrome or ichthyoses (abstract). They eventually link the canine syndrome with a mutation in exon 5 of FAM83H (family with sequence similarity 83, member H, abstract), a gene whose mutations cause autosomal dominant hypocalcification amelogenesis imperfecta (ADHAI), a disease associated with defective enamel formation. Further characterization of the causal relationship existing between having two copies of the culprit mutation in FAM83H (in the autosomal recessive canine disease), the dry syndrome and the skin hyperkeratosis is eagerly awaited.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Friday, March 9, 2012

Updated Nomenclature and Classification of Human Ichthyoses

Oji V, Tadini G, Akiyama M, et al. Revised nomenclature and classification of inherited ichthyoses: results of the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Sorèze 2009. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2010; 63: 607-641. Abstract. 
PubMed ID (PMID): 20643494
ReprintV. Oji 
Comments: With the increasing number of animal ichthyoses whose genetic mutations are being characterized, it is important for veterinary dermatologists to be familiar with and embrace the latest consensus nomenclature and classification of these diseases in humans. 
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Ectodermal Dysplasia-Skin Fragility Syndrome in Chesapeake Bay Retriever Dogs

Olivry T, Linder KE, Wang P, et al. Deficient plakophilin-1 expression due to a mutation in PKP1 causes ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome in Chesapeake Bay retriever dogs. PLoS ONE 2012: 7: e32072. Abstract. 
PubMed ID (PMID): 22384142
Comments: This is the first description of a congenital suprabasal epidermolysis bullosa in a small animal species. This paper describes the clinical, microscopic, ultrastructural and genetic cause of ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome (ED-SFS) in Chesapeake Bay retriever dogs in the USA. This disease is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding plakophilin-1 (PKP1) with resulting absence of this protein. This PKP1 deficiency leads to the detachment of desmoplakin from desmosomes, keratin filament retraction and, ultimately, to suprabasal acantholysis. The clinical phenotype consists of erosions at areas of friction and abnormal hair coat.
Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Novel Gene Mutation Causes Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis of Golden Retrievers and Humans

Grall A, Guaguère E, Planchais S, et al. PNPLA1 mutations cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in golden retriever dogs and humans. Nature Genetics 2012, ePub. Abstract. 
PubMed ID (PMID): 22246504
ReprintC. André 
Comments: This is an elegant and rigorous study that combines different genetic and molecular techniques to unravel the etiopathogenesis of ichthyosis of golden retrievers. Firstly, in a genetic association study using only 40 golden retriever dogs, the authors identify a single locus in chromosome 12 that shows highly significant association with the hereditary non-epidermolytic retention ichthyosis described in 2007 in this breed. Furthermore, a causal mutation is identified in PNPLA1 (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 1), which consists of an indel (insertion-deletion) in exon 8 leading to a premature stop codon. This mutation constitutes a completely new molecular mechanism causing ichthyosis and which involves epidermal lipid metabolism. Finally, the authors also identify two mutations in the PNPLA1 gene in six humans affected by a variant of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). Therefore, this paper confirms the validity of using dogs as an unique model to pinpoint phenotype-genotype correlations and to identify new mutations leading to human diseases.
Recommended by: Lluís Ferrer, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain